Report on the welfare of dairy cattle

PART I: INTRODUCTION

Remit

Method of Investigation

Philosophy of Approach

PART II: THE UK DAIRY INDUSTRY

Background

Development of the industry

Organic farming

PART III: THE WELFARE ISSUES

Background

The Five Freedoms

Stockmanship and Training

Housing and Environment

   General

   Cubicles

   Straw yards

   Loafing area

   Cowsheds

   Ventilation

   Outwintered animals

   All-year housing

   Light Levels

   Heat stress

Lameness

   General

   Predisposing factors and lesions

   Breeding and conformation

   Foot care

   Farm tracks and paths

Machine Milking

   General

   Robotic milking

Infectious Diseases: Mastitis

   General

   Summer Mastitis

   Control of Mastitis

Other Infectious Diseases

Nutrition

   General

   Condition scoring

   Water and feed intake

   Metabolic disorders

Fertility and Reproduction

   General

   Artificial Insemination (AI)

   Natural service

   Embryo transfer

   Ovum pick-up

   Sexed semen

   Ultrasound scanning

   Dystocia

   Induction of parturition

   Calving aids

Handling Facilities

   General

   Lifting gear

   Calving and hospital (isolation) pens

Calf and heifer rearing

   General (Calf rearing)

   Management and housing

   Nutrition

   Disease

   General (Heifer rearing)

   Management and housing

Mutilations

   General

   Castration

   Disbudding and dehorning

   Supernumerary teats

   Tagging

New Technology and Developments

   Bovine somatotrophin (BST)

   Unwanted progeny

   Extended lactation

Other matters

   Overstocked udders in cattle at markets and at shows

PART IV: SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations for early action

Recommendations for longer term implementation

Recommendations for further work

APPENDIX A: Membership of the Farm Animal Welfare Council

APPENDIX B: Those who gave evidence and assistance

APPENDIX C: Per rectum ultrasound scanning for pregnancy detection in cattle

   Background

   Investigation

   Recommendations

   Per rectum pregnancy detection using a doppler transducer

   Horses

APPENDIX D: BST - advice to Ministers