Report on the welfare of pigs kept outdoors

PART I: INTRODUCTION

Background

Method of Investigation

Philosophy of Approach

PART II: OUTDOOR PIG PRODUCTION METHODS

Introduction

Development of the Outdoor Pig Industry

Changes in Production Methods

 a) Genetics:

 b) Nutrition:

 c) Health:

 d) Equipment:

 e) Fencing:

 f) Paddock layout:

 g) Feed delivery:

 h) Water:

Types of Outdoor Production System

Organic Farming

PART III: THE WELFARE ISSUES

Introduction

Stockmanship

Recommendations

Site Suitability

Recommendations

Climatic Conditions

Rainfall

Cold

Wind and snow

Heat stress and sunburn

Recommendations

Stocking Density

Set-aside

Recommendations

Management of Units

Acclimatisation

Fencing

Weaners and finishing pigs

Early-weaning

Farrowing hut design

Recommendations

Health and Disease

Lameness

Stone-chewing

Recommendations

Food and Water

Food

Recommendations

Water

Recommendations

Mutilations

Nose-ringing

Tail-docking and tooth-clipping

Castration

Animal Identification

Recommendations

Choice of Breed

Genotype

Aggression

Recommendations

Predation

Recommendation

Hot Air Balloons

PART IV: SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Controls by Code Provision

B. General Recommendations

APPENDIX A: MEMBERSHIP OF THE FARM ANIMAL WELFARE COUNCIL

APPENDIX B: THOSE WHO GAVE EVIDENCE AND ASSISTANCE

APPENDIX C: SITE SUITABILITY FOR OUTDOOR PIGS

1.0 Selecting a suitable site

2.0 Problems caused by an unsuitable site

3.0 Suggested Assessment of the Suitability or Unsuitability of a Site