Report on the welfare of turkeys

Part I: Introduction

Background

Method of Investigation

Philosophy of Approach

Part II: Turkey Production Methods

History

The Turkey Industry

Primary breeders

Breeders

Producers

Changes in farming methods

Types of turkey production system

Conventional (enclosed) housing

Pole barn housing

Free-range

Part III: The Welfare Issues

Environmental comfort

 (a) Temperature

 (b) Ventilation

 (c) Heat stress

 (d) Light

 (e) Litter

 (f) Environmental enrichment

Beak-trimming

Stocking density

Leg health

General

Meat Birds

Breeding birds

Disease

Turkey Rhinotracheitis (TRT)

Availability of vaccines and medicines

Artificial Insemination

Catching and handling

Culling and slaughter on-farm

Culling

Slaughter on-farm of market weight birds

Stockmanship

(a) Inspection

(b) Training

Record-keeping

Farm Fires

Part IV: Summary of recommendations

A. Proposed legislative controls.

B. Proposed controls by Code provision.

C. General recommendations

Appendix A: Membership of the Farm Animal Welfare Council

Appendix B: Those who gave evidence and assistance

Appendix C: Lighting for turkeys

1. Light intensity

2. Photoperiod

3. Light colour

4. Light source

Appendix D: Stocking density calculations

Appendix E: Turkey catching: example guidelines